The shockingly well-preserved, frozen mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, “Ötzi,” was discovered in 1991 in the Italian Alps. Genetic analyses of the 5,300-year-old Copper Age man began in 1994, recovering partial mitochondrial sequences, and culminated in 2012 with whole genome sequencing of a sample from his hipbone. Ötzi probably had brown eyes, Type O blood, and lactose intolerance. He was genetically predisposed to heart disease and suffered from Lyme disease. Other genetic studies focused on his last meal (red deer meat and, possibly, cereals) and his sheep’s lineage – inferred from DNA in hair shafts from his clothes.
Did you know? In 2013, researchers identified 19 living relatives of Ötzi among 3,700 people in the Tyrolean region.